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The footnotes link each mold medical problem to the reference source for the provided information.


Symptoms of mold-caused illness include difficulty concentrating, fatigue,1 2 3 dizziness.1 2 impaired memory,2 thinking slowly,2 problems

 following instructions2 and headaches.1 2 Many brain functions can be impaired, as documented by testing.4 5 These include reaction time,

balance, color vision, visual fields, strength (grip), memory, attention span, other cognitive test abnormalities4 and electrical conduction in the

brain.2 These occurred with repeated exposures with increased symptoms.4

Brain damage from mold can cause changes that resemble psychologic problems2 3 4 such as increased frustration,2 difficulty dealing with

people,2 and symptoms resembling depression.2 Repeated mold exposure can cause impaired memory and other damage to brain function.1 2 3

6 7 8 Molds can also release mycotoxins, which can cause brain damage, also called encephalopathy. 6 7 8


Symptomatic repeated mold exposure can cause asthma/asthma-like chronic illness.9 Repeated mold exposure increases asthma risk10 11 12

Asthma-like changes are found in studies of people with repeated mold exposure.13 14 Persisting reduction of lung function has been

documented with repeated exposures to mold.4 5 Inflammation has been shown on larger and smaller airways (

Mold in buildings causes chronic worsening of respiratory symptoms and illness,15 This was documented by a scientific study comparing exposed

and nonexposed individuals.15 Repeated irritation causing asthma-like symptoms is sometimes called reactive airway disease. Asthma is a chronic

inflammatory disorder of the airways.16 It involves damage to airway lining with scar formation, airway swelling16 enlargement of the bronchial

smooth muscle and excess mucous.16 Plugging of airways with excess mucous can occur.16 Airway swelling, muscle enlargement, inflammation

and scar formation would all reduce airflow. This causes shortness of breath.

Asthma-like inflammation leads to hyperreactivity of the airways16 with further airway narrowing when exposed to irritants. This hyperactivity

causes symptoms at lower irritant exposure levels, a form of chemical sensitivity. Reduced airflow causes wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness

and cough.16


Exposure to a variety of types of molds can cause upper and lower chronic respiratory symptoms.9 13 17 18 19 20 21 22 The most

prevalent effects resulting from mold exposure include chronic respiratory irritation and disease.9 14 19 20 23 Chemical irritants are produced by

mold.24 This can cause inflammation of sinus and other upper and lower airways.20


Molds release substances that can cause eye irritation.9 14 18 19 21 Repeated mold exposure can lead to chronic eye irritation. 13 14


The irritation effects of repeated mold exposure can lead to chronic increased sensitivity to chemicals. 25 26 27 Molds can also induce histamine

release by non-IgE mediated mechanisms28 29 or other asthma synonyms). This is sometimes referred to as reactive airway disease, which

increases sensitivity to chemicals.


Autoimmune changes (e.g., Lupus, multiple sclerosis/myelin damage23 can occur with mold exposure.23 Impairment of immune cells to divide

and form new cells can also occur.23 Some, but not all persons develop increased immune antibodies, which are “non-allergic” (not IgE) immune

reactions against the mold.30 Other changes in lymphocyte immune response are also common with mold illness.31


Mold-caused illness can cause chronic fatigue, chronic aching, chronic headache and chronic gastrointestinal symptoms.25 26 27 These

symptoms are sometimes labeled “chronic fatigue syndrome”, “fibromyalgia”, “irritable bowel”, etc.


Mycotoxins are often highly toxic chemicals produced by specific molds. Some molds do not make “mycotoxins” according to current

knowledge. Stachybotris mycotoxins can cause serious damage to the nerve of smell (olfactory nerve), 32 resulting in neurotoxicity,32 brain

inflammation32 and reduced sense of smell32 (which reduces the warning system ability to avoid future exposure.

Some mycotoxins resemble chemicals that have been used as chemical warfare agents.33 Mycotoxins can be measured and if present in

significant amount may need to be removed from the body by special substances such as cholestyramine. Patients handle cholestyramine better

when their health has otherwise been improved (eliminating exposure and correcting belowaverage nutrient levels as measured through

SpectraCell Laboratories).


Chemicals released by most mold species are solvent-like neurotoxins: toluene, xylene, styrene,34 ketones34 35as well as aldehydes.20 34

(Many of these can go to lipid tissue, some to water based body fluids.)24 34 Aldehydes are a well-known cause of chronic respiratory illness 24

25 26 27 34 and brain damage.34 36 Aldehydes have been associated with illness symptoms including headache, eye and respiratory

irritation, sleep disturbance, and increased thirst in workers as well as people with certain consumer products at exposure levels as low as 0.13

ppm.34 Aldehydes in mold can also cause chronic change in immune function with hypersensitivity, immune activation, and increased

autoimmune tendency. 37

Molds release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during growth.34 35 36 38 39 Material such as adhesives, water protective coatings, oils and

other carbon containing material are converted by molds to VOC’s.34 In addition, mycotoxins can affect the liver, kidneys, respiratory system

and other organs. Mycotoxins and volatile compounds produced by molds are capable of causing brain damage (neurotoxic effects) 34 36 as

well as chronic fatigue.34 36 A large controlled study showed an increase in eye, skin and respiratory irritation, headache and fatigue in persons

who were in moldy buildings and buildings with a history of water leakage within the past five years compared to those not in such buildings.39



Molds are tiny particles breathed into the lungs. Gases, vapors and other air pollutants cling to particles. Particles then carry these

substances into the lungs, where they persist longer, because particles are harder to clear from the lungs. In addition, very small particles cause

lung inflammation, damage lung cells, can form lipid peroxides in lung tissue and can cause scarring in the lungs.40 Fine particulates deposit in the

respiratory tract. 41 42 The smaller respirable particles (under 2.5 microns), including mold, deposit in the deep lung sacs (alveoli).41 The

inflammation response there can make the lungs more permeable to toxins and other particles and allergens.41

Particles breathed into the lungs cross the lipid cell membrane of lung cells and accumulate in cell structures known as lipid vesicles.43 Particles

can increase the respiratory inflammation marker, exhaled nitric oxide.44 Repeated or prolonged increase in nitric oxide can cause chronic illness

in many body organs.

Brain and Nerve

Very fine particles inhaled into the nose can travel up into the brain45 46 by going up along the nerve of smell (olfactory nerve) into the brain

(olfactory bulb),45 located next to other brain basic control centers. These very small particles entering the blood stream can impair normal

function of the autonomic nervous system.40


Fine particles can act as a physical stressor, increasing body stress hormone levels.41 This can damage adrenal glands, other hormones and brain



Release of particles can cause EKG changes in electrocardiogram with reduced blood/oxygen supply to the heart and inflammation.47 Exposure

to combustion particles and gases causes excess cardiovascular disease risk.48 49 50

Other Organs

When chemical particles are breathed in, they can pass into the blood stream40 and be distributed to many other body organs and cells.51

Chemical particles in those other locations also cause inflammation in those locations and increased production of immune substances. This causes

toxicity51and increased need for antioxidants due to formation of tissue-damaging substances called free radicals.51


1 JV Baldo etal, “Neuropsychologic performance of patients following mold exposure”, Applied Neuropsychol 9: 193-202, 2002.

2 WA Gordon etal, “Cognitive impairment associated with toxigenic fungal exposure”, Applied Neuropsychol 11: 65-74, 2004.

3 BR Crago etal, “Psychological, neuropsychological and electrocortical effects of mixed mold exposure”, Archiv Environ Health

58: 452-463, 003.

4 KH Kilburn, editor, “Indoor mold exposure associated with neurobehavioral and pulmonary impairment: A preliminary

report”, Molds and Mycotoxins, page 3, Heldref Publications, Washington, DC, 2004.

5 Kilburn, Kaye H., “Neurobehavioral and pulmonary impairment in 105 adults with indoor exposure to molds compared to 100

exposed to chemicals”, Toxic Ind Health Online First, 1-12, Sept. 30, 2009

6 W Sorensen, “Aerosolized mycotoxins: Implications for occupational settings”, pp. 57-67, in Proceedings of the International

Conference: Fungi and bacteria in indoor air environment: Health effects, detection and remediation, October 6-7, 1994.

Sponsored by the US Public Health Service, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, the State of New York, and the Eastern New York

Occupational Health Program.

7 P Auger, “Mycotoxins and neurotoxicity”, pp 161-167, in Proceedings of the International Conference: Fungi and bacteria in

indoor air environment: Health effects, detection and remediation, Oct 6-7, 1994, sponsored by the US Public Health Service,

Mount Sinai School of Medicine, the State of New York, and the Eastern New York Occupational Health Program.

8 C Yang and E Johanning, “Airborne fungi and mycotoxins”, Aerobiology, Chapter 70.

9 B Brunekreef etal “Home dampness and respiratory morbidity in children”, Am Rev Respir Dis 140: 1363-1367, 1989.

10 A Nevalainen and M Securi, “Of microbes and men”, Indoor Air 15 (Supp) 58-64 , 2005.

11 M Matheson etal, “Changes in indoor allergen and fungal levels predict changes in asthma activity among young adults”,

Clin Exp Allergy 35: 907-913, 2005.

12 M Jaakola etal “Indoor dampness and molds and development of adult-onset asthma: a population-based incident case-control

study”, Environ Health Persp 110: 543-547, 2002.

13 T Husman, etal, “Respiratory symptoms and infections among residents in dwellings with moisture problems or mold growth”,

Proceedings of Indoor Air 1: 171-174, 1993.

14 T Husman, “Health effects of indoor-air microorganisms,” Scand J Work Environ Health 22: 5-13, 1996.

15 R Savilahti, etal, “Respiratory morbidity among children following renovation of a water-damaged school”, Arch Environ

Health 55: 405-410, 2000.

16 L Goldman and J Bennett, Editors, Cecil’s Textbook of Medicine WB Saunders Co, Philadelphia, PA, 2000.

17 L Chih-Shan and H Li-Yuan, “Home dampness and childhood respiratory symptoms in the subtropical climate”, Arch Env

Health 51: 42046, 1996.

18 Ruotsalainen, etal , “Water damage and moisture problems as determinants of respiratory symptoms among workers in daycare

centers” Proceedings of Indoor Air, 4: 317-322, 1993.

19 R Rylander, “Respiratory disease caused by bioaerosols – exposure and diagnosis”, Symposium of Oct 22-24, 1995, Denver,

CO, sponsored by US EPA, U.S. Dept of Energy and American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning


20 R Dales, etal “Adverse health effects among adults exposed to home dampness and mold”, Am Rev Respir Dis, 143: 505-509,


21 D Straus, etal, “Studies on the role of fungi in sick building syndrome”, pages 83-86. KH Kilburn, editor Molds and

Mycotoxins, Heldref Publications, Washington, DC, 2004.

22 D Dennis, etal, “Chronic sinusitis: Defective t-cells responding to superantigens, treated by reduction of fungi in the nose and

air”, KH Kilburn, Editor, Molds and Mycotoxins, page 69, Heldref Publications, Washington, DC, 2004.

23 MR Gray etal, “Mixed mold mycotoxicosis: Immunological changes in humans following exposure in water-damaged

buildings”, pages 23-33. KH Kilburn, editor, Mold and Mycotoxins, Heldref Publications, Washington, DC, 2004.

24 Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Formaldehyde. US DHEW, Dec 1976.

Molds & Chronic Illness

Page 5 of 5

25 H Nordman, etal, “Formaldehyde asthma – rare or overlooked? J Allergy Clin Immunol 75: 81-99, 1985.

26 A Broughton and J Thrasher “Antibodies and altered cell mediated immunity in formaldehyde exposed humans,” Comments

Toxocol 2: 155-170, 1988.

27 J Thrasher, etal, “Building related illness and antibodies to albumin conjugates of formaldehyde, toluene disocyanate and

trimellitic anhydride”, Amer J. Ind Med 15: 187-195, 1989.

28 P Thomas, etal, “Modifications of histamine release by molds,” Proceedings of Indoor Air, 1: 215-217, 1993.

29 F Larsen, etal, “Microfungi in indoor air are able to trigger histamine release by non-IgE mediated mechanisms,” Inflamm Res

45: S23-S24, 1996 (Supp 1).

30 A Vojdani etal, “Antibodies to molds and satratoxin in individuals exposed in water-damaged buildings”, Molds and

Mycotoxins, KH Kilburn, editor, Heldref Publications, Washington, DC, 2004.

31 WJ Rea etal, “Effects of toxic exposure to molds and mycotoxins in building-related illness”, Molds and

Mycotoxins, KH Kilburn, editor, Heldref Publications, Washington, DC, 2004.

32 Z Islam etal, “Satratoxin G from the black mold stachybotrys chartarum evokes olfactory sensory neuron loss and inflammation

in the murine nose and brain” Environ Health Persp 114: 1099-1107, 2006.

33 Medical Aspects of Chemical Biological Warfare, Editors FR Sidell, MD; ET Takafuji, MD, US Army; and DR Franz, DVM,

US Army, 1997.

34 H Schleibinger etal, “Occurrence of microbiologically produced aldehydes and ketones from filter materials of HVAC systems

field and laboratory experiments”, Practical Engineering for IAQ, Oct 22-24, 1995, Denver, CO, American Society of Heating,

Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. Proceedings jointly published with US EPA and DOE.

35 D Ahearn, “Fungal colonization of air filters and insulation in a multi-story office building: Production of volatile

organics:, Curr Microbiol 35: 305-308, 1997.

36 C Bayer, “Volatile emissions from fungi”, Engineering Solutions to Indoor Air Quality Problems, EPA Symposium, July 22-24,

1995, Published by the Air and Waste Management Assoc, Pittsburgh, PA.

37 J Thrasher etal, “Immune activation and autoantibodies in humans with long-term inhalation exposure to formaldehyde”, Archiv

Environ Health 45: 217-223, 1990.

38 I Ezeonu, etal, “Fungal production of volatiles during growth on fiberglass” Appl Environ Microb 60: 4172-4173, 1994.

39 K Engvall, etal, “Ocular, airway and dermal symptoms related to building dampness and odors in dwellings”,

Arch Environ Health 57: 1063-1067, 2004.

40 C Chang-Chuan etal, “Personal exposure to submicrometer particles and heart rate variability in human subjects”,

Environ Health Persp 112: 1063-1067, 2004.

41 MP Sirivelu, etal, “Activation of the stress axis and neurochemical alterations in specific brain areas by concentrated ambient

particle exposure with concomitant allergic airway disease.” Environ Health Persp 114: 870-874.

42 M Gwinn and V Vallyathan, “Nanoparticles: Health effects – pros and cons”, Environ Health Persp 114: 1818-1825, 2006.

43 A Penn, etal, “Combustion-derived ultrafine particles transport organic toxicants to target respiratory cells”, Environ Health

Persp 113: 953-963, 2005.

44 F Therese, etal, “Exhaled nitric oxide in children with asthma and short-term PM2,5 exposure in Seattle”,

Environ Health Persp 113: 1791-1794, 2005.

45 B Weinhold “Ultrafines’ Quick Neurological Hit: Particles take a direct route to the brain”, Environ Health Persp 114:486, 2006.

46 A Elder, etal, “Translocation of inhaled ultrafine manganese oxide particles to the central nervous system”, Environ

Health Persp 114: 1172-1178, 2006.

47 DR Gold, etal “Air Pollution and ST-segment depression in elderly subjects”, Environ Health Persp 113:883-887, 2005.

48 LH Chen, etal, “The association between fatal coronary heart disease and ambient particulate air pollution: are

females at greater risk?” Environ Health Persp 13: 1723-1729, 2005.

49A Zanobetti and J Schwartz, “Particulate air pollution, progression, and survival after myocardial infarction”, Environ Health

Persp, 115: 769-775, 2007.

50 S Glinianaia etal, “Does particulate air pollution contribute to infant death? A systematic review”, Environ Health Persp

112: 1365-1370, 2004.

51 TR Nurkiewicz, etal, “Systemic microvascular dysfunction and inflammation after pulmonary particulate matter

exposure”, Environ Health Persp 114: 412-419, 2006.

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