Other causes include Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp., Shigella spp., Giardia spp. and adenovirus.
Reported General Outbreaks of IID
Note: a general outbreak is an outbreak that affects members of more than one household, or residents of an institution.
It is calculated that of the total reported outbreaks of IID in England and Wales:
· 25% due to bacteria
· 38% due to viruses
· 36% unknown cause (although half suspected as viral)
Data from community IID study
A study involving 460,000 participants was carried out in England and Wales to evaluate IID cases in the community and presenting to general practice. The study indicated that:
· As many as 1 in 5 people in the general population develop IID each year
· This gives an estimated 9.4 million cases each year
· For every one IID case detected by surveillance, another 136 cases occur in the community.
· Only 1 in 6 patients consults a doctor.
· It is not possible to determine exactly what proportion of these cases originate in the home
The ratio of unreported cases in the community to cases reported to national surveillance was estimated:
· For every 1 case of Campylobacter reported, another 7.6 cases occur in the community
· For every 1 case of Salmonella reported, 3.2 cases occur in the community
· For every 1 case of Rotavirus reported, 35 cases occur in the community
· For every 1 case of NV reported, 1562 cases occur in the community
What this means for England and Wales is that, using the figures above for “reported” IID cases in 2001:
Consequences and costs of IID
· Each year IID causes over 300 deaths and 35000 hospital admissions in England and Wales.
· The cost of IID to the health sector in UK has been estimated at 226 million Euros. This includes GP visits, laboratory tests, prescriptions and hospital stays.
· Additional societal costs such as lost productivity, travel and death amounts to almost 2 billion Euros as well as 13 million days sick leave.
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